A few decades ago, it was expected that young adults with special needs (YASNs) would move directly from their parents care into a group home that would care for their special needs. While that option is much less normal today, it is still very much an option. There are few different kinds of group living that are appropriate for YASNs just leaving the nest.
Types of Group Living for Young Adults with Special Needs
• Boarding Home / ‘Supervised Living’: A large home owned by an agency that houses 5-20 people. The folks living there get regular but infrequent (often weekly) visits from a supervisor, and have on-call staff handy for urgent issues during the day and early evening, but are on their own overnight. Most such homes offer room and board for a flat fee, though there are many exceptions.
• Intermediate Care / ‘Group Homes’: Similar to a boarding home, but with 24-hour non-medical support available for the residents. Most often geared toward people with minor intellectual or developmental disabilities, and most often a single home will have aides trained to deal with a particular spectrum of special needs.
• Assisted Living Facilities: A facility that offers 24-hour medical support for the residents, including those who need assistance with basic Activities of Daily Life (ADLs) such as dressing or feeding themselves. A small (<10 bed) Assisted Living Facility is known as a 'Family Care' facility in many states.
Questions to Ask About a Group Home
While the categories of group living are fairly clearly divided by level of need, they don’t really tell you much about what day-to-day life is like in each kind of facility. That’s because there’s not really a lot of consistency between facilities; some offer just the bare minimum of state- and Federally- mandated support, and others are significantly more all-encompassing. So before you choose a particular home, be sure you know:
• What is the sense of community like between residents?
• How often does the facility schedule special events, community activities, and so on?
• What unique supports does the facility offer? (For example, do they have transportation available for shopping trips? How about to and from work?)
• How does the facility develop plans for residents with behavior issues? How involved are the residents in this planning process?
• How would you describe the relationship between the management and the local police, emergency responders, and neighbors? (NIMBYism is a big problem with group homes!)
• What can you do to incorporate as much of my old family routine into my new schedule as possible?
The Danger of Group Living: Abuse Is More Common
The one often-unexpected danger of group-living facilities is that, like nursing homes and similar places, there are more opportunities for abuse in group situations. While such situations are less common for young adults than with the elderly, they are particularly common when your special needs include an intellectual or emotional disability. If you’re considering a group home, make certain you talk about personal safety and how to appropriately respond to potential abusers with your family and caretakers.